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Chemical Thermodynamics and Energetics


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Introduction to Thermodynamics   ✔

  • The Scope of Chemical Thermodynamics
  • Limitations of Thermodynamics
  • Terminology of Thermodynamics
  • Types of System
  • Properties of System
  • Thermodynamic Equilibrium

Chemical Processes   ✔

  • Isothermal Process
  • Isobaric Process
  • Isochoric Process
  • Adiabatic Process
  • Reversible Process
  • Irreversible Process
  • Cyclic Process
  • Graphical Representation of various Processes

The Concept of Internal Energy  ✔

  • Constituents of Internal Energy
  • The Significance of Internal Energy
  • Characteristics of Internal Energy

Work Done in Thermodynamic Process  ✔

  • Pressure-Volume Work
  • Work Done during Free Expansion
  • The Concept of Maximum Work
  • Work Done in Isothermal Reversible Process
  • Difference Between Heat and work
  • Sign Convention

Numerical Problems on Pressure Volume Type Work ✔

Problems on Maximum Work  ✔

First Law of Thermodynamics ✔

  • Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
  • First Law of Thermodynamics
  • Sign Convention Used
  • Application of the First Law of Thermodynamics to Different Processes

Enthalpy of a System   ✔

  • Concept of Enthalpy of a System
  • Change in Enthalpy of a  System
  • Change in Enthalpy of a  System at Constant Pressure
  • Change in Enthalpy of a  System at Constant Volume
  • Relation Between the Change in Enthalpy and the Change in Internal Energy
  • Work Done in Chemical Reaction

Problems Based on  Enthalpy Change and Internal Energy Change  ✔

Thermochemistry and Heat of Reaction  ✔

  • Thermochemical Equation
  • Guidelines to Write Thermochemical Equation
  • The Necessity of Mentioning State of Substances Involved
  • Heat of Reaction or Enthalpy of Reaction
  • Heat of Reaction at Constant Pressure
  • Heat of Reaction at Constant Volume
  • Exothermic and Endothermic Chemical Reactions

Enthalpy of Different Chemical Processes  ✔

  • Enthalpy of Formation
  • Enthalpy of Dissociation
  • Enthalpy of Combustion
  • Enthalpy of Neutralization
  • Enthalpy of Fusion
  • Enthalpy of Freezing
  • Enthalpy of Vapourization
  • Enthalpy of Condensation
  • Enthalpy of Sublimation

Change in Enthalpy During Atomic and Molecular Changes  ✔

  • Enthalpy of Ionization
  • Enthalpy of Atomization
  • Enthalpy of Solution
  • Enthalpy of Dilution
  • Bond Enthalpy
  • Crystal Lattice Energy
  • Enthalpy of Hydration

Bond Enthalpy  ✔

  • Concept of Bond Enthalpy
  • Bond Dissociation Enthalpy
  • Heat of Reaction From Bond Enthalpy
  • Numerical Problems

Hess’s law of Constant Heat Summation  ✔

  • Statement and explanation
  • Illustration of Hess’s Law
  • Applications of Hess’s law
  • Numerical Problems

The Concept of Entropy ✔

  • Spontaneous Process
  • Characteristics of Spontaneous Process
  • Non-Spontaneous Process
  • Characteristics of Non-Spontaneous Process
  • Energy and Spontaneity
  • Concept of Entropy
  • Entropy and Spontaneity

The Concept of Gibb’s Free Energy ✔

  • Derivation of Gibb’s Helmholtz Equation
  • Gibb’s Energy and Spontaneity
  • Numerical Problems
  • Third Law of Thermodynamics
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