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Colloids

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Colloidal Solutions

  • True Solutions and their characteristics
  • Suspensions and their characteristics
  • Colloidal Solutions and their characteristics
  • Terminology of Colloidal Solutions
  • Applications of Colloids

Types of Colloidal Systems

  • Lyophilic Sols and Their Characteristics
  • Lyophilic Sols and Their Characteristics
  • Multimolecular Colloids
  • Macromolecular Colloids

Associated Colloids or Micelles

  • What are Micelles?
  • Formation of Micelles
  • Surfactants
  • Cationic Surfactants
  • Anionic Surfactants
  • Non-ionic Surfactants
  • Characteristics of Micelles

Preparation of Colloids

  • Mechanical dispersion method
  • Electrical Dispersion or Bredig’s Arc Method
  • Peptization or Chemical Dispersion
  • Ultrasonic Dispersion
  • Oxidation Method
  • Reduction Method
  • Hydrolysis Method
  • Double Decomposition Method
  • Exchange of Solvent Method
  • Change of Physical State Method
  • Purification of Colloids (Dialysis, Electrodialysis, Ultrafiltration, Ultracentrifugation)

General and Optical Properties of Colloidal Solution

  • Heterogenous Character
  • Visibility
  • Filterability
  • Surface Tension and Viscosity
  • Molecular Mass
  • Colligative Properties
  • Colour
  • Brownian Movement
  • Tyndall effect

Charge on Colloidal Particles

  • Origin of the Charge on Colloidal Particles
  • Electrical Double Layer
  • Importance of the Charge on Colloidal Particles

Electrophoresis and Electro-Osmosis

  • Electrophoresis or Cataphoresis and its Applications
  • Electro-osmosis and its Applications

Coagulation of Colloidal Solutions

  • Coagulation by Mutual Coagulation
  • Coagulation by Heating
  • Coagulation by Electrophoresis
  • Coagulation by Addition of Electrolyte
  • Hardy- Schulze Rule
  • Protective Colloids
  • Applications of Coagulation: Sewage Precipitation
  • Applications of Coagulation: Smoke Precipitation

Gels

  • Gels
  • Elastic Gels and their characteristics
  • Non Elastic Gels and their characteristics
  • Characteristics of Gel
  • Properties of Gels: Swelling, Syneresis, Thixotropy, 
  • Uses of Gels

Emulsions

  • Emulsions
  • Emulsifying Agent or Emulsifier
  • Types of Emulsions and Their Preparation
  • Characteristics of Oil in Water Emulsion
  • Characteristics of Water in Oil Emulsion
  • Properties of Emulsions:
  • Precipitation
  • De-emulsification
  • Dilution
  • Characteristics of Emulsions
  • Uses of Emulsions
  • Method of Identification of Type of Emulsion
  • Method of Breaking of Emulsion

Applications of Colloids

  • Blue Colour of Sky
  • Red and Orange Colour of Sky at Sunrise and Sunset
  • Fog, Mist Rain and Clouds
  • Industrial Applications of Colloids
  • Sewage Treatment
  • Smoke Precipitator
  • Food Applications
  • Medicinal Applications
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