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  • Oxidation, Reduction and Redox Reactions
  • Concept of Oxidizing and Reducing Agent
  • Electrolytic Conductors
  • Electronic Conductors

Ionic (Electrolytic) Conduction:

  • Concept of Molar Conductivity
  • Variation of Electrolytic Conductivity With Concentration
  • Friedrich Kohlrausch Relation
  • Kohlrausch Law and its Application
  • Calculation of the Molar Conductivity of any Electrolyte at Zero Concentration
  • Relation Between Molar Conductivity and Dissociation Constant
  • Measurement of Conductivity
  • Types of Conduction

Electrolytic and Electrochemical Cells

  • Conversion of Chemical Energy into Electrical Energy
  • Conversion of Electrical Energy into Chemical Energy
  • Types of Cells
  • Terminology

Electrolysis and Its Applications

  • Electrolysis
  • Electrolysis of Fused NaCl
  • Electrolysis of Aqueous NaCl
  • Concept of Overvoltage
  • Applications: Determination of Equivalent Masses of Elements
  • Applications: : Electrometallurgy
  • Applications: Manufacturing of Non-Metals
  • Applications: Electrorefining
  • Applications: Electroplating

Electrochemical Cells

  • Types of Electrochemical Cells
  • Daniel Cell: Construction, working, cell reactions
  • Dry Cell: Construction, working, cell reactions, uses, advantages and disadvantages
  • Button Cell: Construction, working, cell reactions, uses, advantages and disadvantages

Fuel Cells and Lead Accumulators

  • Fuel Cell: Construction, working, cell reactions, uses, advantages and disadvantages
  • Lead Accumulator Construction, working, cell reactions, uses, maintenance
  • Nickel Cadmium Cell: Construction, working, cell reactions

Representation of Electrochemical Cells

  • Convention for Representing the Voltaic Cell
  • Representation of Some Cells
  • Salt Bridge and its Working
  • Advantages of Salt Bridge
  • Reference Electrode
  • Indicator Electrodes

Reference Electrodes

  • Construction and Working of Standard Hydrogen Electrode
  • Advantages of SHE
  • Difficulties in setting up of SHE
  • Arrangement to Find Oxidation Potential of another Electrode Using SHE
  • Construction and Working Calomel Electrode
  • Advantages and Disadvantages of Calomel Electrode

Types of Electrodes

  • Gas electrodes
  • Metal-Sparingly Soluble Metal Salt Electrode
  • Metal – Metal Ion Electrodes
  • Redox Electrodes
  • Steps to Write Cell Reactions
  • Steps to Find E.M.F. of a Cell

Concept of Electrode Potential

  • Nernst Theory: Electronation, Delectronation and Their Rates
  • Nernst Equation
  • Calculation of Electrode Potential Using Nernst Equation
  • Convention Followed While Calculation of Cell Potential (e.m.f.)

Use of Nernst Equation to Find E.M.F. of a Cell

  • Convention Followed While Calculation of Cell Potential
  • Use of Nernst Equation for Different Types of Electrodes
  • Terminology
  • Gibb’s Energy Change
  • The Relation between Standard Cell Potential and Equilibrium Constant

Electrochemical Series and its Applications

  • Characteristics Electrochemical Series
  • Applications: For Choosing Elements as Oxidising Agents
  • Applications: For Choosing Elements as Reducing Agents
  • Applications: For Studying displacement reaction
  • Applications: For Calculation of standard EMF of cell
  • Applications: For Checking Spontaneity of Redox Reactions
  • Applications: For Construction of a Cell
  • Applications: For Corrosive Treatment
  • Applications: To Find Reactivity of Metals
  • Applications: To Ascertain Electropositivity of Metals
  • Applications: To Find Thermal Stability of Metallic Oxides
  • Applications: To Determine the Products of Electrolysis
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