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Solid State

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Types of Solids

  • Characteristics of Solid State
  • Crystalline Solids and Their Characteristics
  • Amorphous Solids and Their Characteristics
  • Formation of Allotropes
  • Sharp Melting Point of Crystalline Solids
  • No Sharp Melting Point of Amorphous Solids
  • Uses of Amorphous Solids
  • Polycrystalline Solids
  • Comparative Study of Crystalline and Amorphous Solids

Classification of Crystalline Solids

  • Nonpolar Molecular Solids
  • Polar Molecular Solids
  • Hydrogen-bonded Molecular Solids
  • Ionic Solids
  • Metallic Solids
  • Covalent Solids
  • Comparative Study of Crystalline Solids

Bravais Lattice Structures

  • The Concept of a unit cell
  • 14 Bravais Lattices
  • Number of Particles in Unit Cell
  • Coordination Number

Packing Efficiency of Unit Cell

  • Packing Factor and Packing Efficiency
  • Packing Efficiency for Simple Cubic Crystal Structure
  • Packing Efficiency for Body Centred Cubic Crystal Structure
  • Packing Efficiency for Face Centred Cubic Crystal Structure

Numerical Problems – 01

  • To Find the Density of a Substance
  • To Find Edge Length of Unit Cell
  • To Find Volume of Unit Cell

Numerical Problems – 02:

  • To Find Radius of an atom
  • To Find Number of Atoms in Given Mass of a Substance
  • To Find Type of Crystal Lattice

Packing in solids

  • The Principle of Packing in Solids
  • Close Packing in One Dimension
  • Close Packing in Two Dimensions: Square Close Packing, Hexagonal Close Packing
  • Close Packing in Three Dimensions
  • Three-dimensional close packing from a two-dimensional square layer
  • Three-dimensional close packing from two-dimensional hexagonal close-packed layers
  • Covering Tetrahedral Voids (Hexagonal Closed Packing)
  • Covering Octahedral Voids (Cubic Closed Packing)
  • Characteristics of Hexagonal Close Packing
  • Characteristics of Cubic Close Packing

Tetrahedral and Octahedral Voids

  • Types of Voids
  • Number of Voids
  • Characteristics of Tetrahedral Voids
  • Characteristics of Octahedral Voids
  • Packing Voids in Ionic Solids

Radius Ratio

  • Definition
  • The Significance of Radius Ratio
  • Effect of Radius Ratio on Coordination Number
  • Radius Ratio of Interstitial Voids
  • Tetrahedral Voids
  • Octahedral Voids

Defects in Crystal Structure

  • Source of Defects
  • Point Defects
  • Stoichiometric Defects
  • Vacancy Defects or Schottky Defects
  • Interstitial Defects or Frenkel Defects
  • Non-Stoichiometric Defects
  • metal Excess Defects
  • Point Defects due to Presence of Foreign Atoms or Impurity Defects

Magnetic and Dielectric Properties of Solids

  • Magnetic Properties of Solids
  • Types of Magnetic Material
  • Guoy’s  Method of Studying Magnetic Properties of Solids
  • Dielectric Properties of Solids
  • Piezoelectricity
  • Pyroelectricity
  • Ferroelectricity
  • Anti-ferroelectricity

Electrical Properties of Solids

  • Electrical Conductivity
  • Electrical Conductivity on the Basis of Energy Bands
  • Conductors, Insulators and Semiconductors
  • Conduction in Metallic Solids
  • Characteristics of Conductors, Insulators and Semiconductors


  • The structure of Pure Silicon (Semiconductor) Crystal
  • Intrinsic semiconductors
  • Extrinsic semiconductors
  • p-type Semiconductor
  • Characteristics of p-type Semiconductors
  • n-type Semiconductor
  • Characteristics of n-type Semiconductors
  • Uses of Semiconductors
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