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Solutions and Colligative Properties

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Solutions and Their Types

  • Terminology of Solutions
  • The concept of Solubility
  • Factors that affect solubility
  • Types of Solution on the Basis of Size of Solute Particles
  • Types of Solution on the Basis of Phases of Solute and Solvent
  • Types of Solution on the Basis of Concentrations

Solutions of Solids and Liquids

  • A solution of Solid in Liquid
  • Factors Affecting Solubility of a Solids in Liquids
  • A solution of Solid in Solid
  • The concept of Alloys and Amalgams
  • A solution of Liquid in Liquid
  • Characteristics of miscible liquids
  • Solubility Curves

Concentration of Solution

  • Percentage by Mass or Mass Percentage (w/w)
  • Percentage by Volume (V/V)
  • Percentage by Mass by Volume (w/V)
  • Parts per million
  • Strength or Concentration (Grams per litre)
  • Mole Fraction
  • Molarity (Molar Concentration)
  • Molality
  • Normality
  • Formality
  • Relation Between Mole Fraction, Molality
  • Relation Between Mole Fraction, Molarity
  • Molarity of Dilution
  • Molarity of Mixing
  • Relation Between Molarity and Molality
  • Relation Between Normality and Molarity

Numerical Problems on Percentage by Mass and Volume

Numerical Problems on Mole Fraction

Numerical Problems on Molarity

Numerical Problems on Molality

Numerical Problems on Normality

Numerical Problems (Miscellaneous)

Short Cuts For Above Numerical Problems

Solutions of Gases in Liquid

  • Factors Affecting Solubility of Gases in Liquids
  • Henry’s Law
  • Applications of Henry’s Law
  • Limitations of Henry’s Law

Colligative Properties

Lowering of Vapour Pressure

  • What are Colligative Properties?
  • The Concept of Vapour Pressure
  • Relation Between Vapour Pressure and Temperature
  • Clausius Clapeyron Equation
  • Lowering of Vapour Pressure
  • Reasons for Lowering of Vapour Pressure
  • Relative Lowering of Vapour Pressure
  • Raoult’s Law, Explanation and Proof
  • Relation Between Molar Mass of Solute and Lowering of Vapour Pressure
  • Ideal Solutions and Deviations from Raoult’s Law
  • Measurement of Lowering of Vapour Pressure, Ostwald and Walker’s Dynamic Method
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