Farm management is the controlled and scientific handling of farm animals in their rearing, grooming, caring, feeding and breeding to give a much-needed boost to food production.
Dairy management is the management of animals for milk and its products for human consumption.
The main aim of dairy management is to deal with processes and systems that increase yield and improve quality of milk. Bullocks are used for ploughing, harrowing, threshing, transport and drawing water from well. They provide hides, horns and hooves and other byproducts. Their dungs are used in Gober gas (Bio gas) plants for biogas generation and manure.
India is the world’s largest producer of milk. The majority of the milk consumed is also in liquid form in India. In India cattle like cow and buffalo primarily provide milk which is a perfect diet and important source of nutrients and proteins. Production of processed milk products is very less compared to developed countries. The National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) is the main agency behind the cooperative movement in India. India is now seeking joint ventures and financial participation from the private sector including foreign investment for production of milk and milk products in India.
Constituents of Milk:
Water: 87.3% (85.5 – 88.7%)
Milk fat: 3.9 % (2.4 – 5.5%): In cow’s milk fat content is 4.5%-5.3% in buffalo’s milk it is up to 6.5%.
Proteins: 3.25% (2.3-4.4%): Casein: 2.6% (1.7-3.5%), Serum proteins, Minor proteins. In cow’s milk protein content is 3.2 % and in buffalo’s milk it is 6.5 %.
Carbohydrates (Lactose) 4.6% (3.8-5.3%): In cow’s milk carbohydrate content is 4.5% and in buffalo’s milk, it is 5.0%.
Minerals: 0.65% (0.53-0.80%): • Cationic: K, Ca, Mg, K, Fe, P, Na …, Anionic: chloride, phosphate, citrate, carbonate
Vitamins – A, D, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, biotin and ascorbic acid.
Gases – CO2, N2, O2 (CO2 lost after drawing)
Breeds of Cattle:
Lactation Period is the period of milk production between the birth of a young one and the next pregnancy and it usually lasts about 300 days.
A breed is a group of one species of animals, which have the same descent and are similar in body shape, size and structure. There are three categories of breeds.
India possesses 27 good breeds of cattle and seven breeds of buffaloes. They differ from each other on the basis of body colours, horns and foreheads. They are well-known world over for their quality of hardiness, endurance and resistance to tropical diseases.
On the basis of utility, they are classified into three types.
Milch Breeds: They give higher milk production. e.g. Gir, Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Deoni
Draught Breeds: They have a higher capacity of work. e.g. Amruthmahal, Malvi, Nageri, Hallikar, Siri, Khillari and Kangayam
General Utility Breeds: They give more milk and do have a higher capacity for work. e.g. Hariana, Ongole, Kankrej, Tharparkar
Holstein-Friesion is American breed which is the largest producer of milk per lactation. It has less percentage of fat. Brown Swiss breed is raised in Switzerland it has a high content of minerals and lactose and its milk is used for making cheese. Jersey is a breed which is low milk producing breed but it has more fat content. Red Dane breed from a cold region of Europe is more milk producing breed.
Gir, Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Thararkar, Kankrej etc. are some high yielding varieties of Indian cattle.
Hilstein, Friesian, Jersey, Swiss etc. are some of the high yielding varieties that have been imported from abroad and reared widely in India.
Some improved breeds have been developed by making a cross between two desired breeds. A cross between Sahiwal and Friesian varieties has been named as Friewal, Karan Swiss is another improved breed for milk production in large quantities.
Some Indian Breeds of Cow and Their Distributions:
Gir (Gujarat, Rajasthan, Maharashtra)
Red Sindhi (Andhra Pradesh, all part of world including India and Pakistan)
Sahiwal (Haryana, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat)
Ongole (Andhra Pradesh)
Hariana (Gujarat, Rajasthan)
Hallikar (South India)
Murrah (Haryana, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh)
Some Indian Breeds of Buffalo and Their Distributions:
Murrah (Haryana, Punjab)
Bhadawari (Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh)
Mehsana (Cross between Murrah and Surti) Gujarat
Nill Ravi (Punjab)
Milk, as drawn from the animals, is known as full cream milk. When the cream is separated and the remaining milk is called toned milk. This milk contains no fat and is known as skimmed milk. On the basis of fat contents the classification of various milk product is as follows:
It is prepared by churning milk, the fat comes on the top which is separated by draining out the liquid. It is known as cream with 10-70% fat contents.
Milk is converted to curd due to bacterial activities.
It is the left over liquid after removal of butter.
After heating butter, the water evaporates and fat contents are almost 100%.
Milk is concentrated by removing water contents with or without adding sugar. It has 31% milk solids with 9% fats.
It is the powdered form of milk.
It is coagulated milk protein-casein with fat and water.
A desiccated milk product prepared by evaporating water contents and reducing the bulk to about 70-75%.
Cattle dung is mainly used to make dung cakes for burning as fuels. It is used mainly in villages of India. The farmers also use cattle dung to produce biogas and the leftover residue as manure.
When You Have Time Watch the Movie ‘Manthan” means Churning