Some health measures can be undertaken only by the community as a whole; these include water source protection, proper disposal of solid waste and excreta, wastewater drainage, controlling animal rearing and market hygiene.
It is the responsibility of the community leader with legal authority to check that everyone in the village must keep their houses and compounds clean because one dirty house can affect many conscientious neighbours and contribute to the spread of disease.
Keep your home clean. Do not throw garbage around residential areas. Use garbage cans. They are there for a reason.
Do not spit or urinate in public places. It not only looks bad but also causes the entire surrounding area to stink.
Make sure you stay in constant touch with the local administration to ensure that your office and residential areas are always clean.
Due to lack of basic services like water supply, sanitation, solid waste disposal, proper ventilation, and drainage, the markets are not able to store foodstuff properly and become the cause of health hazard.
Markets should provide the traders and customers easy access to safe water for drinking and washing. Many vegetable and fruit sellers regularly sprinkle their produce with water, and it is important that they have access to clean water for this. Water and sanitation facilities for a market can be available to traders and customers by obtaining some fee from them by local governing bodies. Foodstuffs sold at the market should be inspected daily by health officials.
Market areas should also be properly drained to prevent flooding and insect breeding
Proper disposal of the waste material is required. Otherwise, it can cause an outbreak of a deadly disease. The layout of market stalls should thus allow easy access for vehicles that collect waste and clean the area. Solid waste should be collected and disposed of daily, and preferably more often. Properly designed and constructed waste bins should be made available.
The animal rearing is done for obtaining food high in protein content and nutritional value. It also generates additional income. The other products related to animal rearing are leather and fuel.
Improper methods of animal rearing can have negative effects on the health of the community.
The excreta of the animal may contain pathogens hence animals should always be kept away from households, particularly cooking areas and drinking-water sources, since their excreta contain pathogens that can contaminate food and water. Animal waste should be disposed of properly, away from homes and water sources, or be used as a natural fertilizer or for producing biogas.
Animals should be slaughtered away from households and water sources since the offal and wastes may introduce contamination and must be carried out by qualified individuals who follow the legal practices.
Some disease vectors prefer animal hosts to humans.
Some mosquitoes prefer to feed on cattle rather than humans. Placing animal shelters between mosquito breeding places and the village may, therefore, provide some protection against malaria transmission.
If the safety rules for storing, preparing and handling food are not followed in the eating-houses, then customers will get affected and it may cause serious disease outbreaks.
The main problem of eating houses is sanitation, water supply, and personal cleanliness. They should have clean water for washing and drinking, The separate sanitation facilities should be available for customers, cooks, and food-handlers and should be located away from the kitchen area. Kitchen area and eating section should be well ventilated and well lit.
The kitchens and eating areas must be kept clean and free of rodents and insects.
The kitchen staff should be clean, bathed, and have clean uniforms every day. They should undergo regular medical check-ups.
Food should be freshly prepared daily and any that is spilled or spoiled or not consumed should be disposed of.
The eating houses should be provided with the necessary fittings, accessories for dealing with fires and accidents.
There should bea regular check of the eating house by local governing bodies. These checks are particularly important in times of epidemics.
Street food vendors are common in urban and semi urban areas. Many people enjoy food from these vendors, in many cases, the food is of poor quality and unhygienic. Such food is a probable health risk.
The street vendors have little or no access to safe water supplies or sanitation facilities, and they commonly cook and handle food with dirty hands. Raw foodstuffs, too, cannot be kept in safe storage places and are easily contaminated by rodents and insects. The street vendors often keep cooked food at environmental temperatures for prolonged periods of time and may heat the food only slightly before serving. All these factors may make the food from street vendors dangerous.
Street vendors should be regulated by local government bodies. If permitted by the local governing bodies, the street vendors should be encouraged to locate close to water points and sanitation facilities where they can keep hands and food clean.
Promoting nutrition and Health:
A healthy and well-balanced diet is essential for good health. When there is not enough food, or if the diet does not contain the right balance of foodstuffs, people become more prone to illness and may become undernourished or malnourished. Children are more prone to it and suffer from infectious diseases.
Stomachs of children are small, children can eat only small portions and need to be fed more frequently than healthy adults. It is important to make children’s food less spicy than adult food.
A well-balanced diet usually has a mixture of food with protein (for example beans, peas, meat, fish or eggs), carbohydrates (such as maize, potatoes, cassava, rice and many other staple foods), vitamins (such as vegetables, fish, fruits or milk), and some fats or oils (such as cooking oil).
The nutrition can be improved by changing agricultural or gardening practices. Health workers can be asked for advice about which crops to grow to provide community members with well-balanced diets.
Note: Reference of World Health Organization (WHO) publications is taken during the writing of this article