Science word is derived from the Latin word ‘Scientia’ which means ‘to know’. Science has many disciplines, Chemistry is one of them. It is the study of materials that make up the universe and changes which these materials undergo.
It is defined as the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the reactions by which one form of matter may be converted into another form.
Chemistry is a central science. It can be explained as follows. Study of chemistry is being done from the ancient time all over the world. It is ancient science but its major development has taken in the modern era. Chemistry provides the support structure to all other sciences like physics, biology, geology, environmental science and engineering.
A significance of the Study of Chemistry:
Artificial sweetener, flavouring agent, food preservatives are chemical compounds and are man-made.
Green revolution in India has taken place due to the use of mechanized agriculture with the use of chemical fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides etc.
Sodium benzoate, sodium meta bisulphate, and salicylic acid are food preservatives.
We get cotton, wool, jute, silk as natural fibres (fibres) for making clothes. But synthetically prepared fibres like nylon, rayon, dacron are superior to the natural fibres.
For shelter steel, aluminium, copper, plastic is required. They are extracted or produced by chemical processes.
Antibiotics, synthetic drugs, antiseptics, anaesthetics, antipyretics, analgesics, vitamins and hormones are used in the improvement of human life.
Some important drugs areTaxol (a Life-saving drug for cancer ), Cisplatin (Cancer therapy), Azidothymidine (AIDS treatment), Prophylactics (Disease preventing), L-Dopa (Parkinson’s disease), Human insulin (Diabetes treatment), Tamiflu (Swine flue).
Chemical fertilizers like urea, calcium nitrate, ammonium sulphate etc. and insecticides like D.D.T. (dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane), gammexane, methoxychlor etc. are used for the improvement of agricultural yield.
Transportation and Electrical Energy:
Fuels like petrol, diesel, C.N.G. etc. are good fuels which are used in automobiles. This energy can be used to generate electrical energy. In the field of electrochemistry Daniel cell, a Lead storage cell, dry cells, fuel cells are used to produce electricity.
Petroleum, wood, coal, charcoal, nuclear fuel are chemical substances which are used to satisfy our energy requirements.
Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals are the chemical substances which are required for the maintenance of our body functions and health.
Industry and Everyday Life:
kerosene, gasoline, petrol, diesel, compressed natural gas (C.N.G.), liquefied petroleum gas (L.P.G.), Paraffin (Wax), Vaseline, Boot Polish, Fibres like wool, silk, cotton, jute, Synthetic fibres like nylon, terylene, polyester, Solvents like water, chloroform, alcohol, benzene, acetone, carbon tetra chloride , substances like poly vinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene, bakelite, rubber, Paints, varnishes, dyes, indigo, azodyes, printing inks, detergents, soaps, perfumes, insecticides, fertilizers are chemical compounds.
All engineering materials like iron, steel, stainless steel, aluminium, zinc, tin, copper, galvanized steel, alloys like brass, amalgams, precious metals like silver, gold, platinum are extracted, purified, synthesized, analyzed using processes based on chemical technology.
There are para chemical branches like Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Pharmacy, Herbal Science, Toxicology, Archaeology and Environmental Science.
Different Branches of Chemistry:
The branch of chemistry that deals with the structure of matter, the energy change and theories, laws, principles that explain the transformation of matter from one form to another.
This is the branch of chemistry that deals with the chemistry of elements other than carbon and their compounds.
This is the branch of chemistry that deals with the chemistry of carbon and its compounds.
This is the branch of chemistry that deals with the separation, identification and quantitative determination of compositions of different substances.
This branch deals with the chemistry involved in industrial processes
This branch deals with the study of nuclear reactions as nuclear fission, nuclear fusion and transmutations.
This is the chemistry of the substances consisting of living organisms.