Friction

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Friction:

  • Friction is a force which comes into existence when two bodies in contact have relative motion or tending to have relative with respect to each other and oppose the motion.

Characteristics of Friction:

  • Force friction is always opposites to the force causing the relative motion between the surface.
  • Force of friction always act at the points of contacts of the two surface.
  • As the force causing motion increases the frictional force increases up to certain maximum value and that maximum value of force of friction is  called limiting friction.
  • Frictional force is independent of area of contacts.
  • Frictional force is independent as nature of surface in contact.
  • Frictional force depends on nature of materials of surface in contact.
  • Frictional force depends on lubrication.

Notes:

  • Even there is no actual relative motion between the two bodies or surfaces the force of friction comes into play whenever the bodies are kept in contact
  • Frictional force always oppose the motion.
  • Friction is partially due to unevenness of the surfaces in contact and partially due to molecular attraction between the molecules of the two surfaces in contact.
  • If the contact surfaces are made very smooth, it still does not minimise the frictional forces, because in this case the intramolecualar forces of attraction increase due to better contact.
  • Force of friction is greater in case of two surfaces made of the same material as in this case the forces of attraction between the molecules of the surfaces are cohesive forces which are greater than the adhesive forces.
  • Frictional force when body is at rest or on the verge of motion is called static friction whereas when the body is in motion the frictional force is called the kinetic friction.

 Friction a Self  Adjusting Force:

  • Friction is a force which comes into existence when two bodies in contact have relative motion or tending to have relative with respect to each other and oppose the motion.
  • When the applied force is zero, the force of friction also equal to zero. If the applied force is slowly increased, the force of friction, in the same proportion up to a particular limit. This force is called the  limiting force of friction. Within this limit the force of friction is exactly equal and opposite to the applied force.
  • If the direction of the applied force is changed the direction of the force of friction also changes in such a way that it is opposite to the direction of the applied force.
  • Thus the  magnitude and direction of frictional force depend upon the magnitude and direction of the applied force. Hence we can say that the force friction is called self adjusting force.
  • Hence the force of friction does not have an independent existence. It comes into play only when the applied force produces or tends to product relative motion between two bodies in contact.

Origin of Friction:

Static Friction

  • Earlier it was assumed hat the force of friction between two surfaces in contact comes into existence due to roughness of the surfaces.
  • When the two surface seems to be in contact actually there is no surface to surface contact. It is due to the fact that irrespective of smoothness of the surface, it contains hills & dales (Projections and depressions). This unevenness of the surface can be observed under microscope. These surface irregularities have the effect of interlocking the surfaces thereby opposing the relative motion of the two surfaces with respect to each other. This opposition contributes to frictional force in small extent.
  • Major contribution to the frictional force can be explained on the basis of molecular theory. Due to hills and dales there is no surface to surface contact but there is point contact. Due to point contact there exist a very high pressure at contact points. Due to high pressure the molecules of the two surfaces at the point of contact get cold welded and thus the bonding exist between the two surfaces in contact.
  • When the two surfaces in contact tend to have relative motion with respect to each other these bonds or cold welded and joints do not allow them to so.  To create relative motion additional force is required to break these cold welded joints. This additional force explains the origin of friction and is called as force of friction.

Types of Friction:

  • There are three types of friction : 1. Static friction  2.  Kinetic friction  3.   Rolling friction

 Static friction:

  • The frictional force which exists between the two surfaces which are at rest or which are on the verge of relative motion with respect to each other is called the static friction.

Kinetic Friction (Dynamic Friction):

  • The frictional force which exists between two surfaces in contact having relative motion with respect to each other is called kinetic or dynamic friction.

Rolling Friction:

  • The frictional force which exists between two surfaces in contact, when one body rolls over the other.


Laws of static Friction:

  • Limiting static friction between any pair of dry unlubricated surfaces is independent of apparent area in contact.
  • Limiting static friction between any pair of unlubricated surfaces depends on nature and material of the surfaces in contact.
  • Limiting static friction between any pair of dry unlubricated surfaces is directly proportional to the normal reaction.

If FS is static friction and R (N) is a normal reaction.

Then, FS   ∝  R

∴ FS  = μS R



Where,  μS = coefficient of static friction.

∴ μS  =  FS /R

The coefficient of static friction is defined as the ratio of the limiting static friction to the normal reaction.

 



Laws of Kinetic Friction:

  • Kinetic friction between any pair of dry unlubricated surface is independent of apparent area is contact.
  • Kinetic friction between any pair of dry unlubricated surfaces  depends on nature of the material in contact.
  • Kinetic friction between any pair of dry unlubricated surface is directly proportional to the normal reaction.

If Fk is kinetic friction and R (N) is a normal reaction.

Then, Fk   ∝  R

∴ Fk  = μk R

Where,  μk = coefficient of static friction.

∴ μS  =  Fk /R



The coefficient of Kinetic friction is defined as the ratio of the kinetic friction to the normal reaction.

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