Chemistry Important Questions: Chemistry in Everyday Life (1 Mark)

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Section A – Questions of 1 mark VSA of difficulty level

Q1. Write the structure of Codeine.

Q2. How is Aspirin obtained from salicylic acid?

  • When salicylic acid is treated with the mixture of acetic anhydride and glacial acetic acid in presence of concentrated sulphuric acid, acetylation of salicylic acid takes place and aspirin is obtained.


Q3. What are narrow spectrum antibiotics?

  • Narrow-spectrum antibiotics are antibiotics which are active against a selected group of bacterial types (mainly against Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria). They are used for the specific infection when the causative organism is known.
  • e.g. Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, Clindamycin, Erythromycin, Vancomycin, Penicillin G5.

Q4. What are broad-spectrum antibiotics?

  • The antibiotics effective against several different types of harmful microorganisms are called broad-spectrum antibiotics.
  • e,g, Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol etc.

Q5. What are cationic detergents?

  • Cationic detergents are quarternary ammonium salts of amines with acetates, chlorides or bromides as anions. Cationic part possesses a long hydrocarbon chain and a positive charge on the nitrogen atom. Hence, these are called cationic detergents.
  • Example: Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide.

Q6. What are anionic detergents?

  • Anionic detergents are sodium salts of sulphonated long chain alcohols or hydrocarbons.
  • Example: Sodium n-dodecyl benzene sulphonate

Q7. What are nonionic detergents?

  • Non-ionic detergents do not contain any ion in their constitution.
  • Example: Pentaerythrityl stearate

Q8. Write a structure of BHA.

Chemicals in Food BHA

Q9. Write a structure of saccharine.

Chemicals in Food Saccharin

Q10. Write the structural formula of Aspirin.

Q11. What are chemical messengers?

  • Chemical messengers are the compounds those serve to transmit a message. e.g. Hormones, Neurotransmitter, Neuropeptides.

Q12. Write the structure of penicillin.

Antibiotics 02
Q13. Write the structure of Novestrol.

Q14. Write the structure of Norethindrone.

Q15. Write the molecular formula of Bithional.

Antiseptics 02
Q16. Write the structure of Seldane.

Q17. Write the structure of Aspartame.

Chemicals in Food AspartameQ18. Identify the functional group in the following detergent molecule. CH3 – (CH2)10 – CH3OSO3Na+

  • Anionic detergent

Section A – Questions of 1 Mark VSA (Which can be combined with sections B / C / D.)

Q1. What are analgesics?

  • Analgesics are drugs which reduce or abolish pain without causing impairment of consciousness, mental confusion, incoordination or paralysis or some other disturbances of the nervous system.
  • Examples: Aspirin, Novalgin, Phenacetin,

Q2. What are tranquilizers?

  • Tranquilizers are a class of chemical compounds used for the treatment of stress, mental tension, anxiety, mania (a disorder of mood), insomnia (sleeping sickness), discomfort feeling and mild or even severe mental diseases. Tranquilizers are also known as psychotherapeutic drugs.
  • Examples: Equanil (controlling depression and hyper tension), valium (diazepam), veronol, meprobamate (relieving stress), chlordiazepoxide, serotonin etc. are mild tranquilizers. Other examples are amytal, seconal, librium,

Q3. What are antimicrobials?

  • Antimicrobials are drugs which tend to destroy/prevent development or inhibit the pathogenic action of microbes such as bacteria (antibacterial drugs), fungi (antifungal agents), virus (antiviral agents), or other parasites (antiparasitic drugs) selectively.
  • Antibiotics, antiseptics, and disinfectants are antimicrobial drugs.
  • Examples:  arsphenamine (Salvarsan) for treatment of syphilis, Sulpha drugs like sulphadiazine, sulphathiazole, sulphanilamide, sulphacetamide, sulphafurazole have great antibacterial power.

Q4. What are antibiotics?

  • Antibiotics are used as drugs to treat infections because of their low toxicity for humans and animals.
  • An antibiotic now refers to a substance produced wholly or partly by chemical synthesis, which at low concentrations inhibits the growth or destroys microorganisms by intervening in their metabolic processes.
  • Examples: Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol etc.

Q5. What are antiseptics?

  • Drugs which are applied to the living tissues to kill the bacteria and to stop their growth in wound thus preventing its infection are called antiseptics.
  • Examples: Iodoform, boric acid, dilute solution of phenol, hydrogen peroxide. Dettol, tincture iodine, soframycin, furacine.

Q6. What are antifertility drugs?

  • Antifertility drugs are the chemicals which are used to check pregnancy in women. These drugs control the menstrual cycle and ovulation. These drugs are mainly used in the form of oral pills. The active ingredients in the pills acting antifertility agents are steroids.
  • Examples: norethindrone (synthetic progesterone derivative) and ethynylestradiol (Novestrol) (synthetic estrogen derivative).

Q7. What are antacids?

  • Basic substances which neutralize the excess of hydrochloric acid in the stomach and raises the pH to the appropriate level are called antacids
  • Examples: Magnesium hydroxide, aluminium hydroxide, Ranitidine (Zantac) is commonly used an antacid.

Q8. What are antihistamines?

  • Basic Antihistamines are amines which are used as drugs to control allergy effects produced by histamine.
  • Synthetic drugs, brompheniramine (Dimetapp) and terfenadine (Seldane), act as antihistamines.

Q9. What are antioxidants?

  • Antioxidants are the substances which when added to food, retard or prevents oxidative deterioration of food.
  • Examples: Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), Vitamin E is a natural antioxidant.

Q10. What are synthetic detergents?

  • Synthetic detergents are sodium salts of long chain alkyl sulphates or a long chain of alkyl benzene sulphonate.
  • Examples: Sodium n-dodecyl benzene sulphonate, Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, Pentaerythrityl stearate

Q11. What is chemotherapy?

  • Chemotherapy is a specific treatment of a disease by the administration of chemical compounds used as medicines.

Q12. What are disinfectants?

  • Drugs which are applied to the nonliving objects to kill the bacteria and to stop their growth are called disinfectants. They are not safe to be applied to living tissues.
  • Examples: Concentrated solution of phenol, sulphur dioxide, chlorine, Chlorine in the concentration of 0.2 to 0.4 ppm in aqueous solution. Sulphur dioxide in very low concentrations is disinfectants.
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