Chemistry Important Questions: Chemistry in Everyday Life (2 Marks)

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Section B – Questions of 2 Marks SA I 

Q1. What is an ideal drug?

A drug having foloowing characteristics is called ideal drug

  • It should destroy disease-causing organism without harming the human body.
  • It should not disturb the physiological processes in the human body.
  • It should not injure host tissues.
  • It should have minimum side effects.
  • It should be localized to the affected site and should not interfere with working of other parts.
  • The cells should not acquire resistance to the drug after some time.

Q2. What are the uses and side effects of tranquilizers?

  • Uses of Tranquilizers: Tranquilizers are a class of chemical compounds used for the treatment of stress, mental tension, anxiety, mania (a disorder of mood), insomnia (sleeping sickness), discomfort feeling and mild or even severe mental diseases. Tranquilizers are also known as psychotherapeutic drugs.
  • Side Effects of Tranquilizers: They produce side effects like a headache, weight gain, discomfort, blurring of the vision.

Q3. How do tranquilizers work in the body?

  • Noradrenaline is one of the neurotransmitters that play a role in mood changes. If the level of noradrenaline is low for some reason, then the signal-sending activity becomes low, and the person suffers from depression.
  • In such situations, antidepressant drugs are required. These drugs inhibit the enzymes which catalyze the degradation of noradrenaline. If the enzyme is inhibited, this important neurotransmitter is slowly metabolized and can activate its receptor for longer periods of time, thus the effect of depression is counteracted.
  • Drugs used are Iproniazid and phenelzine.

Q4. What is the difference between narcotic and non-narcotic analgesics?

  • Non-narcotic analgesics or opioids are medications that mimic the activity of endorphins, substances produced by the body to control pain. They are available by prescription only. e.g. morphine, codeine, pethidine hydrochloride, methadone, heroin etc.
  • Nonnarcotic analgesics are medications used to control pain and inflammation. They are available over the counter in drug stores. e.g. Aspirin and paracetamol

Q. 5) Explain the difference between bactericidal and bacteriostatic antibiotics.

  • Bacteriocidal antibiotics mean those antibiotics that actually kills bacteria by any mechanism depending on the antibiotic used for. Example: Penicillin, Ofloxacin, Aminoglycosides etc.
  • Bacteriostatic antibiotics mean those antibiotics that stop or inhibit the growth of bacteria. They stop multiplication or generation of bacteria but they do not kill bacteria. Example: Erythromycin, Tetracycline,  Chloramphenicol

Q6. Write the structures of chloroxylenol and terpineol?

Q7. How do antihistamines work in the human body?

  • Histamine is a potent vasodilator. It has various functions. It contracts the smooth muscles in the bronchi and gut and relaxes other muscles, such as those in the walls of fine blood vessels. Histamine is also responsible for the nasal congestion associated with common cold and allergic response to pollen.
  • Synthetic drugs, brompheniramine (Dimetapp) and terfenadine (Seldane), act as antihistamines. They interfere with the natural action of histamine by competing with histamine for binding sites of receptor where histamine exerts its effect.
  • Antihistamines do not affect the secretion of acid in the stomach. The reason is that antiallergic and antacid drugs work on different receptors.

Q8. What are food preservatives ? Give an example of food preservative.

  • Food preservatives are the substances when added to food is capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other decomposition of food by the growth of microbes.
  • Examples: Sodium benzoate, salt of the ascorbic acid and propionic acid etc.

Q.9. Explain the role of antioxidant in food preservation.

  • Antioxidants are the substances which when added to food, retard or prevents oxidative deterioration of food.
  • Examples: Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), Vitamin E is a natural antioxidant.
  • During the oxidation of food free radicals are generated. Antioxidants when added to food, react with these free radicals and prevent further oxidation and food becoming rancid.
  • Fats react with oxygen to form free radicals which react further with BHT to form stable BHT radical. This radical does not further react with molecules of the fat and thus the chain reaction is stopped. By this way, BHT prevents rancidity of fats and hence it is used to preserve colour, odour, and taste of foodstuff.

Q.10. Soap damages fibers of clothes when used in hard water. Explain why?

  • Hard water contains calcium and magnesium ions. These ions form insoluble calcium and magnesium soaps respectively when sodium or potassium soaps are dissolved in hard water.
  • These insoluble soaps separate as scum in water and are useless as a cleansing agent. In fact, these are hinderance to good washing because the precipitate adheres to the fibre of the cloth as gummy mass.
  • Hair washed with hard water looks dull because of this sticky precipitate.
  • Dye does not absorb evenly on cloth washed with soap using hard water, because of this gummy mass.
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